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Health Research Guide: CSE Citations

What is CSE?

  • A documentation style for writing and formatting scientific research papers, including citing sources
  • Created by the Council of Science Editors
  • Currently in its 8th edition
  • Scientific Style and Format contains comprehensive and explanations for proper scientific communication and style guidelines
  • CSE offers three style options for in-text citations: Citation-Sequence System, Name-Year System, and Citation-Name System

Citing Your Sources in CSE Style

Citation-Sequence System

In Text:

  • Use a superscript number at the end of a sentence to acknowledge that you are using another author's words or ideas in the text of your research paper.
  • Number citations in the order they appear in the text.
  • If you cite the same source again later in your paper, use the number you assigned originally; each source should be associated with one and only one number.

Reference List:

  • Include a reference list at the end of your paper. The list should contain a full citation for each in-text citation referenced within your paper.
  • Each full citation should include the specific publication information required by the Council of Science Editor rules. This allows your reader to find the sources, if desired.
  • Arrange the end references in numerical order according to the order they appear in the paper.

 

Citation-Name System

Reference List:

  • Include a reference list at the end of your paper. The list should contain a full citation for each in-text citation referenced within your paper.
  • Each full citation should include the specific publication information required by the Council of Science Editor rules. This allows your reader to find the sources, if desired.
  • Arrange citations in alphabetical order by the first word of the citation (usually author's last name). Then, number the sources sequentially.

In Text:

  • Use a superscript number at the end of a sentence to acknowledge that you are using another author's words or ideas in the text of your research paper.
  • Use the number assigned to the source in the reference list.

 

Name-Year System

In Text:

  • Provide in-text citations in parentheses at the end of a sentence to acknowledge that you are using another author's words or ideas in the text of your research paper. In-text citations should consist of the last name of the author (or authors) and the year of publication.
    • Example: (Smith 2019)
  • For sources with two authors, list surnames separated by and".
    • Example: (Smith and Jones 2019)
  • For sources with three or more authors, give only the first authors name followed by et al.
    • Example: (Smith et al. 2019)
  • When citing two sources with the same author but different publication years, separate the years with a comma.
    • Example: (Smith 2013, 2019)
  • To distinguish between two sources published by the same author in the same year, add a lower-case letter to the year in both the in-text and reference list entries. Assign letters alphabetically in chronological order of publication.
    • Example: (Smith 2019a, 2019b)
  • When citing two different sources that have authors with the same surname and publication year, include the authors' first initials in the in-text reference and, if cited together, separate the references by a semicolon.
    • Example: (Smith J 2019; Smith M 2019)

Reference List:

  • Include a reference list at the end of your paper. The list should contain a full citation for each in-text citation referenced within your paper.
  • Each full citation should include the specific publication information required by the Council of Science Editor rules. This allows your reader to find the sources, if desired.
  • Do not number the reference list. Arrange the end references alphabetically by the authors last name.
  • In the reference list, multiple sources by the same author should be listed chronologically, earliest first.

Reference List Citations for Common Source Types

Books

Citation-sequence and citation-name:

Basic format:

Author(s). Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date.

Example:

Schott J, Priest J. Leading antenatal classes: a practical guide. 2nd ed. Boston (MA): Books for Midwives; 2002.

Name-year:

Basic format:

Author(s). Date. Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher.

Example:

Schott J, Priest J. 2002. Leading antenatal classes: a practical guide. 2nd ed. Boston (MA): Books for Midwives.

 

Newspaper Articles

Citation-Sequence and Citation-Name:

Basic format:

Author(s). Title of article. Title of newspaper (edition). Date; section:beginning page of article (column no.).

Example:

Weiss R. Study shows problems in cloning people: researchers find replicating primates will be harder than other mammals.

     Washington Post (Home Ed.). 2003 Apr 11;Sect. A:12 (col. 1).

Name-Year:

Basic format:

Author(s). Date. Title of article. Title of newspaper (edition). Section:beginning page of article (column no.).

Example:

Weiss R. 2003 Apr 11. Study shows problems in cloning people: researchers find replicating primates will be harder than other

     mammals. Washington Post (Home Ed.). Sect. A:12 (col. 1).

 

Journal Articles

Citation-Sequence and Citation-Name:

Basic format:

Author(s). Article Title. Journal title. Date;volume(issue):location.

Example:

Smart N. A practical guide to exercise training for heart failure patients. J. Card Fail. 2003;9(1):49-58.

Name-Year:

Basic format:

Author(s). Date. Article Title. Journal title. Volume(issue):location.

Example:

Smart N. 2003. A practical guide to exercise training for heart failure patients. J. Card Fail. 9(1):49-58.

 

Webpages

Citation-Sequence and Citation-Name:

Basic format:

Title of Homepage. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date of publication [date updated; date accessed]. URL.

Example:

APSnet: plant pathology. St. Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Association; c1994-2005 [accessed 2005 Jun 20].

     http://www.apsnet.org/.

Name-Year:

Basic format:

Title of Homepage. Date of publication. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; [date updated; date accessed]. URL.

Example:

APSnet: plant pathology. c1994-2005. St. Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Association; [accessed 2005 Jun 20].

     http://www.apsnet.org/.

 

e-Books

Citation-Sequence and Citation-Name:

Basic format:

Author(s). Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date of publication [date update; date accessed]. URL.

Example:

Griffiths AJF, Miller JH, Suzuki DT, Lewontin RC, Gelbart WM. Introduction to genetic analysis. 7th ed. New York (NY):

      W. H. Freeman & Co.; c2000 [accessed 2005 May 31]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?call=bv.View..ShowTOC&rid=iga.TOC.

Name-Year:

Basic format:

Author(s). Date of publication. Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; [date updated; date accessed]. URL.

Example:

Griffiths AJF, Miller JH, Suzuki DT, Lewontin RC, Gelbart WM. c2000. Introduction to genetic analysis. 7th ed. New York (NY):

     W.H. Freeman & Co.; [accessed 2005 May 31]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?call=bv.View..ShowTOC&rid=iga.TOC.

 

Online Journal Articles

Citation-Sequence and Citation-Name:

Basic format:

Author(s). Title of article. Title of journal (edition). Date of publication [date updated; date accessed];volume(issue): location. URL. doi.

Example:

Savage E, Ramsay M, White J, Beard S, Lawson H, Hunjan R, Brown D. Mumps outbreaks across England and Wales in 2004:

     observational study. BMJ. 2005 [accessed 2005 May 31];330(7500):1119-1120. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/reprint/330/7500/1119.

     doi: 10.1136/bmj.330.7500.1119.

Name-Year:

Basic format:

Author(s). Date of publication. Title of article. Title of journal (edition). [date updated; date accessed];volume(issue): location. URL. doi.

Example:

Savage E, Ramsay M, White J, Beard S, Lawson H, Hunjan R, Brown D. 2005. Mumps outbreaks across England and Wales in 2004:

     observational study. BMJ. [accessed 2005 May 31];330(7500):1119-1120. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/reprint/330/7500/1119.

     doi: 10.1136/bmj.330.7500.1119.

Microsoft Word Templates

Quick Tips!

  • When you open a new Microsoft Word document to start your paper, click on the References Tab, go to the Citations and Bibliography box, and in the Style box choose Harvard-Anglia.
  • When you need to insert an In-text citation click on the Reference Tab, go to the Citations and Bibliography box, and click on Insert Citation

 

Why cite your sources?

  • First and foremost, we need to give credit to other authors when we borrow their words or ideas. Acknowledge!
  • Citing also allows your readers to find the resources cited in your papers. Share!
  • Finally, we avoid plagiarism and maintain good standing with our instructors. Succeed!

When should you cite a source?

Cite a source any time you use words or ideas that aren't your own. This includes:

  • Using a direct quote
  • Paraphrasing
  • Any time you use or reference someone else's work or ideas
  • When someone else's work has been critical in developing your own ideas

CSE Manual